Course Details: C++

C++

C++ is a cross-platform language that can be used to create high-performance applications. C++ was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup, as an extension to the C language. C++ gives programmers a high level of control over system resources and memory.

C++ is a cross-platform language that can be used to create high-performance applications. C++ was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup, as an extension to the C language. C++ gives programmers a high level of control over system resources and memory.

C++ Introduction

The C++ were first invented by Bjarne Stroustrup in 1979 at Bell Laboratories in Murray Hill, New Jersey. ... C++ is a middle-level programming language. C++ is a statically typed, compiled, general purpose, case -sensitive, free-form programming language that supports procedural, object-oriented, and generic programming.

C++ cout , cin , endl
C++ Variable & Data Types

A variable's type determines the values that the variable can have and the operations that can be performed on it. ... Reference types are called such because the value of a reference variable is a reference (a pointer in other terminology) to the actual value or set of values represented by the variable.

Data types define the type of data a variable can hold, for example an integer variable can hold integer data, a character type variable can hold character data etc. Data types in C++ are categorised in three groups: Built-in, user-defined and Derived.

C++ Strings

One of the most useful data types supplied in the C++ libraries is the string. A string is a variable that stores a sequence of letters or other characters, such as "Hello" or "May 10th is my birthday!". Just like the other data types, to create a string we first declare it, then we can store a value in it.

C++ Control Statement

Control statements are how programmers indicate which sections of code to use at specific times. Control statements are elements in the source code that control the flow of program execution. They include blocks using { and } brackets, loops using for, while and do while, and decision-making using if and switch.

C++ Functions

A function is a block of code which only runs when it is called. You can pass data, known as parameters, into a function. Functions are used to perform certain actions, and they are important for reusing code: Define the code once, and use it many times.

C++ Virtual Function

A virtual function is a member function in the base class that we expect to redefine in derived classes. Basically, a virtual function is used in the base class in order to ensure that the function is overridden. This especially applies to cases where a pointer of base class points to an object of a derived class.

C++ Arrays

C++ provides a data structure, the array, which stores a fixed-size sequential collection of elements of the same type. An array is used to store a collection of data, but it is often more useful to think of an array as a collection of variables of the same type. ... All arrays consist of contiguous memory locations.

C++ Object Classes

An Object is an instance of a Class. When a class is defined, no memory is allocated but when it is instantiated (i.e. an object is created) memory is allocated. Defining Class and Declaring Objects. A class is defined in C++ using keyword class followed by the name of class.

C++ Access Specifiers

In C++, there are three access specifiers: public - members are accessible from outside the class. private - members cannot be accessed (or viewed) from outside the class. protected - members cannot be accessed from outside the class, however, they can be accessed in inherited classes.

C++ inheritance

In C++, inheritance is a process in which one object acquires all the properties and behaviors of its parent object automatically. In C++, the class which inherits the members of another class is called derived class and the class whose members are inherited is called base class.

C++ Polymorphism

C++ polymorphism means that a call to a member function will cause a different function to be executed depending on the type of object that invokes the function. ... You have different classes with a function of the same name, and even the same parameters, but with different implementations.

C++ Abstraction

Abstraction means displaying only essential information and hiding the details. Data abstraction refers to providing only essential information about the data to the outside world, hiding the background details or implementation. ... Abstraction using Classes: We can implement Abstraction in C++ using classes.

C++ Encapsulation

Encapsulation is an Object Oriented Programming concept that binds together the data and functions that manipulate the data, and that keeps both safe from outside interference and misuse. Data encapsulation led to the important OOP concept of data hiding.

C++ Constructor & Destructor

Constructors are special class functions which performs initialization of every object. The Compiler calls the Constructor whenever an object is created. Constructors initialize values to object members after storage is allocated to the object. Whereas, Destructor on the other hand is used to destroy the class object.

C++ this Pointer & Static Keyword

Every object in C++ has access to its own address through an important pointer called this pointer. The this pointer is an implicit parameter to all member functions. Therefore, inside a member function, this may be used to refer to the invoking object. ... Only member functions have a this pointer.

C++ Friend Function & Math Function

A friend function of a class is defined outside that class' scope but it has the right to access all private and protected members of the class. Even though the prototypes for friend functions appear in the class definition, friends are not member functions.

C++ Structs

C++ struct, short for C++ Structure, is an user-defined data type available in C++. It allows a user to combine data items of (possibly) different data types under a single name.

C++ File & Stream

This data type represents the file stream generally, and has the capabilities of both ofstream and ifstream which means it can create files, write information to files, and read information from files. To perform file processing in C++, header files <iostream> and <fstream> must be included in your C++ source file.

C++ Templates

Templates are powerful features of C++ which allows you to write generic programs. In simple terms, you can create a single function or a class to work with different data types using templates. Templates are often used in larger codebase for the purpose of code reusability and flexibility of the programs.

C++ Exception
C++ Iterators

An iterator is any object that, pointing to some element in a range of elements (such as an array or a container), has the ability to iterate through the elements of that range using a set of operators (with at least the increment ( ++ ) and dereference ( * ) operators).

C++ Pointers

A pointer is a variable that holds a memory address where a value lives. A pointer is declared using the * operator before an identifier. As C++ is a statically typed language, the type is required to declare a pointer. This is the type of data that will live at the memory address it points to.

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